Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, the Caucasus were thrust into a series of conflicts which would go on to shape the current borders of the region. The Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan are two notable states which, over the past thirty years, have been engaged in numerous conflicts throughout the area. Once member states of the Soviet Union, Russia and Azerbaijan now share a 338 kilometer (210 mile) land boundary which traverses predominately through the Caucasus mountain range and a smaller section of lowlands as it approaches the Caspian Sea. The border, although largely uncontroversial, remained a topical issue as Russian-leased properties of Azerbaijani territories existed for roughly twenty years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russia did not return the leased territories to Azerbaijan until 2010 following an agreement to finalize border delimitation. While regional conflicts have limited Russia’s ties to Azerbaijan, Russia has, in recent years, begun to favor developing connections with Azerbaijan due to its political and economic saliency.

Map showing the land boundary between Azerbaijan and Russia

Azerbaijan and Russia also share a maritime boundary.

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