Egypt–Sudan

The land boundary between Egypt and Sudan was established while both States were under the influence of the United Kingdom in the early 20th century. It extends from the tripoint with Libya in the west for over 1,220 km to the Red Sea, and there are several disputed areas along its length. It was initially delimited in a 19 January 1899 Agreement to follow the 22° North parallel, corresponding with Egypt’s modern claims, but deviations from this boundary were made later in 1899 and in 1902. Sudan claims the boundary based on these adjustments. Three areas are in dispute today: Wadi Halfa, now submerged beneath Lake Nasser, Bir Tawil, and the Hala’ib Triangle. The Hala’ib Triangle is the most contentious of the three, and the sovereignty over adjacent maritime space in the Red Sea is also in dispute. Egypt maintains de facto control over Wadi Halfa and the Hala’ib Triangle.

Map showing the land boundary between Egypt and Sudan

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