Poland–Russia (Kaliningrad)

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Republic of Poland has shared a land boundary with the Russian Federation’s exclave of the Kaliningrad Oblast. The frontier runs for 210 kilometers (130 miles) in a series of straight lines from the Baltic Sea to the tripoint with Lithuania.

The contemporary border between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Poland came about as a result of multiple treaties and conflicts throughout the twentieth century. In the early twentieth century, the Polish–Russian frontier was the subject of contentious debate among Soviet and Polish leaders. Following World War II, the Polish–Soviet border became less of a source of conflict as the Soviet-backed leadership in Poland were willing to accept Soviet territorial demands. It was at this time that Russia gained control over present-day Kaliningrad. The location of the modern boundary between Poland and Kaliningrad would be solidified in the early 1960s.

Beginning in the 1980s, Poland, then a part of the Socialist Bloc, began to reject Soviet and socialist influence over the country and eventually saw its socialist state overthrown and replaced in 1989 with the Republic of Poland. The Russian Federation and Republic of Poland have since sought to continue to maintain their previous border while working to further define it by officially establishing the tripoint with Lithuania. While the location of the border has remained undisputed, tensions over the Russian invasion of Ukraine has caused Poland to heighten security along its border with Russia.


Map showing the land boundary between Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad)


Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) also have an established maritime boundary.

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